Lithium is a highly reactive metal with a single electron. When the battery is charging, electrons in the cathode begin moving toward the anode through an external circuit. Minus their electrons, the lithium atoms are positively charged lithium ions. These ions travel through the electrolyte to the anode.
Once the anode is full, the battery is completely charged.
As the battery discharges, the lithium ions travel back into the cathode through the electrolyte and the electrons travel back toward the cathode through the external circuit, producing electricity to power the vehicle.