Biden's executive order also targets net-zero emissions from overall federal operations by 2050, including a 65 percent emissions reduction by 2030.
In January, Biden vowed to replace the U.S. government’s fleet with electric models.
"The federal government also owns an enormous fleet of vehicles, which we’re going to replace with clean electric vehicles made right here in America made by American workers,” Biden said.
Biden in August signed an executive order aimed at making half of all new vehicles sold in 2030 electric, which also includes plug-in hybrid electric models that also have a gasoline engine.
The 50 percent target, which is not legally binding, won the support of U.S. and foreign automakers, which said that achieving it would require billions of dollars in government funding.
Biden has resisted calls to follow California, which plans to phase out the sale of new light-duty gas-powered vehicles in 2035.
As of 2019, the U.S. government owned 645,000 vehicles that were driven 4.5 billion miles consuming 375 million gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel, according to the General Services Administration. The U.S. government spent $4.4 billion on federal vehicle costs in 2019, the GSA said.
Of U.S.-government vehicles, just 3,215 were electric vehicles as of July 2020, GSA said.
The White House said the Department of Homeland Security will begin field testing the electric Ford Mustang Mach-E in early 2022 for use in its law enforcement fleet, which currently consists of more than 30,000 vehicles.
Ford Motor Co., in a statement, said it supports Biden's efforts "to accelerate the transition to a zero-emissions transportation future."
“This is great news for our country and our planet," the company said.
General Motors said it's "encouraged by the Biden administration’s support of American manufacturing and electric vehicles."
"Adding electric vehicles to government fleets, paired with the needed infrastructure to support them, is a great way to get more EVs on the road as we work towards a zero-emission, all-electric future. We look forward to learning more details of the executive order," GM's statement said.
John Bozzella, CEO of the Alliance for Automotive Innovation, said the group supports "the administration’s efforts to lead by example."
"Through collaboration we can ensure that the transition to EVs benefits all communities, supports American workers, and enhances U.S. competitiveness and economic security,” Bozzella said in a statement.
UAW President Ray Curry said in a statement that Biden's executive order "seizes the opportunity to preserve, create and increase the opportunity for good union jobs for decades to come.”