For women of color in the auto industry, race adds another element to the challenges they face.
But it's often unclear to them how directly their experiences are linked to their gender, race or ethnicity.
"I am also African-American," one respondent to the Automotive News Project XX Survey wrote. "So I am unsure if it is gender or race that contributes to the male perceptions of me."
Something that is clear: Women of color are both under-represented and underpaid.
The pay gap that hits women generally is even more pronounced for women of color, according to the American Association of University Women. In 2016, white women made 79 percent of white men's earnings, while Hispanic women made just 54 percent. Black women made 64 percent, and Asian women earned 87 percent.
And there are fewer women of color in leadership roles in manufacturing: Women of color held 2.7 percent of executive/senior level official and manager roles in car manufacturing in 2014, compared with 16.9 percent for women overall, according to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data analyzed by Catalyst, a nonprofit organization that aims to accelerate progress for women through workplace inclusion.
But that progress isn't happening for minority women.
"The experiences of women of color and their ability to succeed and advance at work has stalled," said Dnika Travis, vice president and center leader in Catalyst's research center for corporate practice.
And the challenges some-times drive women of color out of the auto business.
"Being a minority female in the auto industry represents a concrete ceiling impossible to break through," another survey respondent said. "As a result, I will leave this industry."