Philip Wade, author of the European Car Distribution Handbook, has taken a look at the European dealer landscape. Here are some of the changes he envisions: Today's dealer is a private owner-operator. Under pressure from carmakers, many will be owned by large groups. Today's dealer holds a single franchise. Most will continue that way if possible. Some may add smaller franchises to make the most use of their space. Dealers combine sales and service. Most are likely to continue to do so; some dealers may choose a service-only business. A typical European dealer operates in an urban street location. With manufacturers pushing for improved facilities, more are starting to move to industrial parks, where they will find more space. Dealers typically sell about 300 new cars annually. Block exemption removes limits on how many cars dealers can order and to whom they can sell, a change that should favor larger dealers. Rising average throughputs will likely need to be still higher to compensate for declining margins and higher standards. Dealers average only about 150 used-car sales annually. But they are becoming more interested in used cars, which tend to be more profitable than new cars. Europe's relatively undeveloped used-car auction system could become more significant. The typical showroom has space for about five cars. More complex model lineups may require larger display areas.